铝合金加工切削液的选择和维护

作者: admin 日期: 2016-04-19 11:29:33 人气: - 评论: 129

   http://www.alu.cn 2010/1/13 来源:机械专家网

   随着航空、汽车工业、石油化工以及电子等近代机械制造工业的崛起,铝合金金属加工变得十分普遍。因此,铝合金加工切削液的选择非常重要,必须保证良好的润滑性、冷却性、过滤性和防锈性。
  
  铝合金在物理性能上与大部分钢材和铸铁材料相比,具有很多明显的特点:强度、硬度与纯铝相比提高很多,但与钢材相比强度与硬度低,切削力小,导热性好。由于铝合金质软,塑性大,切削时易粘刀,在刀具上形成积屑瘤,高速切削时可能在刀刃上产生熔焊现象,使刀具丧失切削能力,并影响加工精度和表面粗糙度。此外,铝合金的热胀系数大,切削热容易引起工件热变形,降低加工精度。
  
  下图所示为铝的电位平衡图。
铝合金的腐蚀形态主要表现为表面变色和孔蚀铝的表面由褐色变为黑色,大面积的变色不会发生孔蚀。孔蚀是小而深的侵蚀,但有时孔蚀相互连通形成大的孔洞,析出白色粉末,俗称白锈。
   


  

  综上所述,铝合金加工切削液的选择非常重要,必须保证良好的润滑性、冷却性、过滤性和防锈性,因此,用于铝合金加工切削液与普通切削液有所不同,选择一款合适的切削液是十分必要的。
  
  根据加工条件和加工精度的不同要求,应选择不同的切削液。由于高速加工可产生大量的热量,如高速切削、钻孔等,如果产生的热量不能及时地被切削液带走,将会发生粘刀现象,甚至会出现积屑瘤,将严重地影响工件的加工粗糙度和刀具的使用寿命,同时热量也会使工件发生变形,严重影响工件的精度。因此切削液的选择既要考虑其本身的润滑性,也要考虑其冷却性能。
  
  对于精加工,选择乳化型减摩切削液或低粘度的切削油,如杜索的乳化型切削液solubleAP9001和切削油cut4201。对于半精加工和粗加工,可选择低浓度的乳化型减摩切削液或半合成减摩切削液等具有良好冷却性能的切削液,如杜索的乳化型切削液solubleAP9005和半合成切削液SEMIGL8003
  
  对于磨削加工来说,磨削下来的磨屑非常细小,而且在磨削过程中会产生大量的热量,因此选择切削液时既要考虑润滑和冷却性能,还要考虑切削液的过滤性。如选择的切削液粘稠度过大,切屑不能及时沉积下去或被过滤出去,那么就会随切削液循环到加工区而划伤工件表面,从而影响加工表面的光洁度。因此,对于精磨或超精磨选用低粘度减摩磨削油或半合成减磨切削液,如杜索的精磨油grindingoil03和半合成切削液SEMIGL8006。对于半精磨或粗磨,可选用低浓度的半合成切削液或全合成切削液,如杜索的半合成切削液SEMIGL8006和全合成切削液SYNTHETICGF7004
  
  在切削液的选择方面,除了要考虑切削液的润滑性、冷却性等性能外,还要考虑切削液的防锈性、成本和易维护等方面的性能。切削油易选用粘度相对较低的基础油加入减摩添加剂,这样既可以达到润滑减摩,也可以具有很好的冷却和易过滤性。但是切削油存在的问题是闪点低,在高速切削时烟雾较重,危险系数较高,而且挥发快,用户使用成本相应变高,因此在条件允许的情况下,尽量选用水溶性切削液。
  
  对于水性切削液,更重要的是考虑其防锈性。现在常用的水性铝防锈剂有硅酸盐和磷酸脂,对于工序间存放时间较长的工件,在加工时易选用具有磷酸脂型防锈剂的切削液,因为硅类物质与铝材长时间接触会发生腐蚀产生黑色的“硅斑”。
切削液的pH值多保持在810,如果防锈性不好,铝材在这种碱性条件下很容易被腐蚀。因此,水溶性切削液一定要具有良好的铝防锈性能。
  
  
铝合金加工切削液的使用与维护
  
  铝合金加工切削液的配制和使用与普通切削液基本相同,只是在稀释水的选择上要更加严格。
因为水中的许多离子对铝都会产生腐蚀作用,如果这些离子含量过多就会降低切削液的防锈性能,尤其是在工序间防锈上,例如氯离子、硫酸根离子以及重金属离子等另外,一些离子还会与切削液中的铝防锈剂发生反应而降低切削液的防锈性和稳定性,如钙、镁离子等。因此尽量选择硬度较小的稀释水,或经过离子交换软化后的稀释水,以保证切削液的使用效果和使用寿命。
  
  铝合金加工切削液的维护除了需要如普通切削液的日常维护外,还需要注意以下几点。①过滤:因为铝合金在碱性条件下易发生反应生成铝皂,破坏切削液的稳定性,因此应立即将切削下来的铝屑过滤出去,避免铝屑与切削液再发生反应而影响到切削液的使用效果与使用寿命。在磨削加工过程中磨出来的铝屑既细小又轻,很难沉淀下去,如不进行过滤或过滤的不充分,铝屑就会随切削液循环系统被带到加工区而划伤工件表面,影响加工表面的光泽度。②
pH值:因为铝材对切削液的pH值非常敏感,因此要经常性地对铝合金切削液pH值进行检测,如发现异常应及时进行调整。使用pH控制在89,以免pH值过高腐蚀工件或pH值过低使细菌大量繁殖而影响切削液的稳定性和使用性能定时补加新液:既保证切削液的良好润滑,也保证了切削液良好的防锈性能和杀菌防腐性能,以延长切削液的使用寿命。
  
  
结论
  
  铝合金加工切削液的选择是非常重要的,既要保证切削液良好的润滑性、防锈性,还要有良好的稳定性、过滤性和易维护性,只有这样才能加工出符合要求的产品,最大限度地降低切削液的使用成本。

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